STEP 1: Deciding and Implementing Prevention Mechanisms by the Government at the Macro Level

It is the national government’s responsibility to implement preventive measures; for example, irrigation projects, afforestation programmes or mangrove protection, improved public infrastructure, increased storage facilities (also for emergency purposes), provision of high-quality data, high-quality agricultural extension services, agricultural research for enhancing climate change resilience, building codes, zoning and land-use planning.

In order to achieve optimal results, these national measures would complement preventive activities initiated by agricultural producers, the local communities and the enterprises along the agricultural value chain.

Social safety nets integrated with livelihood enhancement, food security and nutrition programmes, housing and education, towards the eradication of poverty, can be effective solutions to empower and assist people disproportionately affected by weather-related disasters.

Guiding Questions and Tools

Guiding Questions

Are there hazard and sector-specific prevention measures and policies in place that strengthen the resilience against weather-related events and climate change at all levels (for the government, the agricultural private sector and producers)?

Are they regularly monitored and evaluated for improvement?

Are there linkages between social protection (particularly public works programmes) and national disaster management departments that are being used for the construction of climate-resilient agriculture and infrastructure along the agricultural value chain?

Global databases

FAO Statistical Database on food and agriculture (FAOSTAT): Information on production, investment, trade, agri-environmental indicators, food security, prices, land use, forestry, amount of land planted in hectares

EU Copernicus Climate Services: Up-to-date information on e.g. agriculture, forestry, fisheries, environment protection, local planning, transport, sustainable development, and societal challenges esp. for policy¬-makers


UN/Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI): Software tool NAPAssess for identifying vulnerable populations and potential adaptation initiatives (e.g. overview of available climate risk screening and assessment tools)

EU tool KULTURisk evaluates social and economic benefits of different risk prevention initiatives
(including early warning systems, insurance)


FAO (2017): Benefits of farm level disaster risk reduction practices in agriculture − Preliminary findings

World Bank (2017): Unbreakable − Building the Resilience of the Poor in the Face of Natural Disasters

Source of information

Multi-/bilateral organizations (e.g. FAO, GIZ, IFAD, UNISDR, World Bank) and international development banks (e.g. Inter-American Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, African Development Bank).

Websites and reports/studies analysing the agricultural sector with a focus on macro- or sector-wide policies and constraints and value chain analysis.

Regional or territorial development issues, or specific selected topics (e.g. grain reserves, food security, commodity exchanges)

Guiding Questions

Does the government systematically cooperate with institutions relevant for risk reduction? If so, with which?

What kind of support is given by the government to strengthen academic research for resilience building (e.g. drought-prone seeds, low-cost storm-resistant buildings)?

Which role does insurance play in disaster risk prevention?


Semi-structured interviews with government officials, academics, agricultural business associations and entrepreneurs, and civil society organizations (e.g. farmer associations).

Source of information

Research organizations and networks on the agricultural sector, e.g. the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR)

International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)

Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR)

Tools related to insurance are mentioned in

Guiding Questions

Does the government keep track of public expenditures on disaster risk reduction investments and losses caused by weather-related events?

Government information and reports on policies and implementation in areas such as sustainable agriculture and agricultural infrastructure, land-use planning, green economy growth, pro-poor livelihood growth, resilience strategies by, for example, the ministries of finance and agriculture, and agriculture-related agencies including agricultural commodity boards and agricultural extension services.